February 08, 2022

Discerning Between Influenza or COVID-19 in Older Adults

Caregiver wearing PPE helping senior

Knowing whether you or an aging loved one is coming down with influenza or COVID-19 can be tricky since symptoms are similar. But there are key differences amongst the symptoms and their onset. With either illness, adults aged 65 and over and individuals with underlying health and/or chronic conditions, are at a higher risk of becoming sick.

While many of these symptoms are similar to those of influenza, the primary difference to note is the loss of taste and/or smell. As individuals age, sensory loss is common; therefore, aging adults experiencing any of the following symptoms or any abnormalities noticed, should contact a primary care physician and consider being tested for COVID-19. Symptoms may be noticed 2-14 days after exposure and can range from mild to severe.

COVID-19 Symptoms

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), people with these symptoms may have COVID-19.

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle aches or pains
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Rash on skin or discoloration of fingers and toes

Seasonal Influenza Symptoms

Most of the time seasonal influenza, an acute respiratory infection, is a sudden onset of not feeling well (malaise). According to WHO, the following symptoms are common. The cough can be severe and can last two or more weeks. Most people infected with the influenza virus recover within a week without complications; however, older adults are at higher risk.

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Runny nose
  • Dry cough
  • Muscle or joint pain

The Concern this Season

What has healthcare providers and family caregivers concerned for this flu season is a co-infection or when an individual becomes infected with both viruses at the same time. Since both can be deadly for seniors and those with underlying health conditions, the need to diligently practice proper handwashing techniques and decrease any unnecessary exposure is paramount.

The risk increases for older adults with chronic conditions such as diabetes, asthma, COPD, heart disease, post-transplant, immunocompromised with cancer or on a long-term steroid or other immunosuppressant. For aging adults with chronic conditions, the most serious complication of influenza or COVID-19 is pneumonia, which can become deadly if not treated quickly.

9 Ways to Limit Exposure to Viruses

1. Wear a mask. Mask wearing is critically important in public spaces, but wearing a mask at home when visitors (ask them to wear one too) come over will help decrease any potential exposure.

2. Avoid crowds and unnecessary travel. Limit visitors and outings to only necessities. Consider online ordering with porch delivery or enlist the help of a CAREGiver to run errands and grocery shop.

3. Practice proper handwashing. Wash hands often for at least twenty seconds with soap and water. To prevent the spread of either virus, wash hands after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing; after being in public; before and after caring for someone who is sick.

4. Practice social distancing. When outings are required, be sure to stay six feet from one another wear a mask for extra protection.

5. Stay home if ill or not feeling well. Now is not the time to become complacent. If you or another family member or friend feel ill, or have knowingly been exposed to either virus, avoid contact with others. Either virus can be spread up to two days before symptoms present and, in almost all cases, they remain contagious for a minimum of seven days.

6. Carry your own pen or stylus. When outings are necessary, bring your own pen to complete transactions.

7. Walk instead of drive. Walk when possible to increase exercise and limit time within the close quarters of vehicles and public transportation.

8. Avoid buffet style meals. This will limit potential germ transfer from shared utensils.

9. Add moisture to your air. Viruses tend to linger longer in dry air. A Yale School of Medicine study suggests that increasing water vapor in the air through humidifiers is a potential strategy to reduce flu symptoms and speed recovery.

Boosting the Immune System

Older adults have weaker immune systems and its possible family caregivers do as well because of stress and lack of sleep, which are common amongst those caring for others. These tips can help improve immune systems.

Stay Hydrated
Hydration plays a vital role in keeping our bodies well.

Consider Dietary Supplements
Vitamin C is known for its antioxidant properties and vitamin B12 is an energy producer. Many older adults, 60 or older, have vitamin B12 deficiency.

Eat a Balanced Diet
Eat whole foods rich in key nutrients like zinc, iron, protein and vitamins C and D. Avoid processed foods like packaged cookies, meats and chips. Start with these tips.

Get Enough Sleep
Sleep is an essential element for a strong immune system. Lack of sleep decreases the body’s ability to fight off viruses. Studies show that people sleeping less than six hours per night are four times more likely to catch a cold than those who sleep seven hours a night.

Exercising boosts the immune system and benefits the body. Try to incorporate these activities for a senior's mind, body and soul.

Get Vaccinated

Stay up to date with vaccines. People who are up to date with their vaccines are better protected from serious illness or other adverse health outcomes. Discuss timing of these preventative measures with a healthcare professional.

The CDC recommends individuals over 65 get a flu shot annually and individuals 18 years and above receive the initial series of the COVID-19 vaccine and stay up to date with boosters as necessary.

Vaccinations reduce the risk and severity of either virus, as well as reducing the risk of developing complications.

Additionally, Medicare and most insurance plans cover the cost of both vaccines. It is always best to check coverage with your insurance company. Many drugstores, pharmacies and Veterans Affairs medical facilities also offer low-cost flu shots.

Of all things to be aware of this cold and flu season, it’s of utmost importance to listen to your body. Don’t hesitate to call a healthcare provider or schedule a telehealth appointment to discuss any influenza, COVID-19 or other health concerns. Remember it’s best to be proactive with all health concerns and you shouldn’t feel guilty for calling a physician or the nurse line.

Find more caregiving resources to help navigate the changing caregiving journey. For more information about COVID-19 and seasonal influenza, visit Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).

This information is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking care because of something you have read on here.

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Caregiver and senior walking inside home